The lichen genus Phyllopsora is common and widespread in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Species are generally corticolous, mostly on the basal portion of the main trunks of living trees, and two or three species often occur on the same trunk. There seems to be little host specificity for Phyllopsora; species occur on a broad range of woody angiosperms. Some species may also grow on rock or on bryophytes, yet they are rarely found on leaves or dead wood. This treatment of neotropical species of Phyllopsora recognizes eighteen species and eleven varieties, including one species and one variety described as new. Includes keys, descriptions, and photographic images.