This volume contains a taxonomic revision of neotropical taxa in the lichenized fungi order Caliciales sens. lat. It excludes Sphaerophorus and comprises 51 species in 17 genera. The order mainly contains lichenized species, but some species are parasymbiotic on lichens and others are saprophytic or parasitic on lichens or vascular plants. Most species have a passive spore dispersal and a well-developed mazaedium, i. e., an accumulation of mature spores remaining on or in the fruiting-bodies. The thallus in the species dealt with varies from well-developed and dactyliform in Acroscyphus to immersed in the substrate in several crustaceous genera. The order is not considered to be monophyletic. Includes keys, descriptions, distribution maps, and photographic images.